January 19, 2018

Archives for June 1996

S/RES/1062 (1996)

United Nations

S/RES/1062 (1996)

Security Council Distr.: General

28 June 1996

 


RESOLUTION 1062 (1996)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 3675th meeting,
on 28 June 1996

The Security Council,

Welcoming the report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations operation in Cyprus of 7 June 1996 (S/1996/411 and Corr.1 and Add.1),

Welcoming also the report of the Secretary-General on his Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus of 25 June 1996 (S/1996/467),

Taking note of the recommendation in his report of 7 June 1996 that the Security Council extend the mandate of the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP),

Noting that the Government of Cyprus has agreed that in view of the prevailing conditions in the island that it is necessary to keep the force in Cyprus beyond 30 June 1996,

Reaffirming its earlier relevant resolutions on Cyprus, and in particular resolutions 186 (1964) of 4 March 1964, 939 (1994) of 29 July 1994 and 1032 (1995) of 19 December 1995,

Reiterating its concern that there has been no progress towards a final political solution, and agreeing with the assessment of the Secretary-General that the negotiations have been at an impasse for too long,

Regretting that no progress has been made in introducing measures to prohibit along the cease-fire lines live ammunition or weapons other than those which are hand-held and to prohibit the firing of weapons within sight or hearing of the buffer zone, or in extending the 1989 unmanning agreement,

Expressing concern about the restrictions placed upon the freedom of movement of UNFICYP in the northern part of the island, as described in paragraph 27 of the report of the Secretary General of 7 June 1996, 96-16201 (E) /… S/RES/1062 (1996) Page 2

1. Decides to extend the mandate of UNFICYP for a further period ending on 31 December 1996;

2. Welcomes the appointment of Mr. Han Sung-Joo as the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Cyprus and calls upon both parties to cooperate fully with him in his efforts to facilitate a comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem;

3. Deplores the tragic incident involving the fatal shooting of a Greek Cypriot National Guardsman inside the United Nations buffer zone on 3 June 1996, as well as the hindering by Turkish Cypriot soldiers of UNFICYP personnel attempting to assist the National Guardsman and investigate the incident, as documented in the report of the Secretary-General of 7 June 1996;

4. Expresses serious concern about the continuing modernization and upgrading of military forces in the Republic of Cyprus, the excessive levels of military forces and armaments and the lack of progress towards a significant reduction in the number of foreign troops in the Republic of Cyprus, urges once again all concerned to commit themselves to such a reduction and to a reduction in defence spending in the Republic of Cyprus to help restore confidence between

the parties and as a first step towards the withdrawal of non-Cypriot forces as described in the set of ideas (S/24472, annex), stresses the importance of eventual demilitarization of the Republic of Cyprus as an objective in the context of an overall comprehensive settlement, and calls upon the Secretary- General to continue to promote efforts in this direction;

5. Expresses serious concern also about recent military exercises in the region, including overflights in the airspace of Cyprus by military fixed-wing aircraft, which have increased tension;

6. Calls upon the military authorities on both sides:

(a) To respect the integrity of the United Nations buffer zone, ensure that no further incidents occur along the buffer zone, prevent hostile actions, including live fire against UNFICYP, grant UNFICYP complete freedom of movement and extend their full cooperation to UNFICYP;

(b) To enter immediately into discussions with UNFICYP, in line with paragraph 3 of resolution 839 (1993) of 11 June 1993, with a view to adopting reciprocal measures to prohibit along the cease-fire lines live ammunition or weapons other than those which are hand-held and to prohibit also the firing of weapons within sight or hearing of the buffer zone;

(c) To clear all minefields and booby-trapped areas inside the buffer zone without further delay, as requested by UNFICYP;

(d) To cease military construction in the immediate vicinity of the buffer zone;

(e) To enter immediately into intensive discussions with UNFICYP with a view to extending the 1989 unmanning agreement to cover all areas of the buffer zone where the two sides are in close proximity to each other, on the basis of the updated proposals submitted by the UNFICYP Force Commander in June 1996; /… S/RES/1062 (1996) Page 3

7. Welcomes the measures that have been taken by the two parties in response to the humanitarian review conducted by UNFICYP, regrets that the Turkish Cypriot side has not responded more fully to the recommendations made by UNFICYP, calls upon the Turkish Cypriot side to respect fully the basic freedoms of the Greek Cypriots and Maronites living in the northern part of the island and to intensify its efforts to improve their daily lives, and calls upon the Government of Cyprus to continue its efforts to eliminate any discrimination against Turkish Cypriots living in the southern part of the island;

8. Welcomes the continuing efforts of the United Nations and diplomatic missions to promote bicommunal events, regrets the obstacles which have been placed in the way of such contacts, and strongly urges all concerned, and especially the Turkish Cypriot leadership, to lift and prevent all obstacles to such contacts;

9. Requests the Secretary-General to keep under review the structure and strength of UNFICYP with a view to its possible restructuring, and to present any new considerations he may have in this regard;

10. Reiterates that the status quo is unacceptable and calls upon the parties to demonstrate concretely their commitment to an overall political settlement;

11. Stresses its support for the Secretary-General’s mission of good offices and the importance of the concerted efforts to work with the Secretary- General towards an overall comprehensive settlement;

12. Urges the leaders of the two communities to respond positively and urgently to the Secretary-General’s call upon them to work with him and with the many countries who support his mission of good offices to break the present impasse and establish common ground on which direct negotiations can be resumed;

13. Recognizes that the decision of the European Union concerning the opening of accession negotiations with Cyprus is an important new development that should facilitate an overall settlement;

14. Requests the Secretary-General to submit a report by 10 December 1996 on the implementation of the present resolution;

15. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

S/1996/467 – Reports of the Secretary-General on his good offices mission

United Nations

S/1996/467

  Security Council Distr.: General

25 June 1996

Original: English

 


Report of the Secretary-General on his mission of good offices in Cyprus

I. INTRODUCTION

1. The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 1032 (1995) of 19 December 1995. In paragraph 11 of that resolution, the Security Council requested me to submit a report during the current mandate period of the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) on my mission of good offices, including a full assessment of my efforts towards reaching a settlement of the situation in Cyprus.

II. MISSION OF GOOD OFFICES

2. In my last report on my mission of good offices, dated 29 October 1994 (S/1994/1229), I informed the Council, inter alia, that the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities had accepted my proposal that they meet in informal direct talks, together with my Deputy Special Representative, Mr. Gustave Feissel, with a view to exploring in a concrete manner ways in which progress might be made both in respect of the implementation of the confidence-building measures and in respect of the overall settlement of the Cyprus problem. I informed the Council that four such meetings had taken place and that I would keep the Council apprised of developments in the light of the continuing consultations. In a letter dated 4 November 1994 (S/1994/1256), the President of the Council advised me that the members of the Council had taken note of the aforementioned report and looked forward to receiving a definitive report at the appropriate time.

3. On 9 December 1994, I told the members of the Security Council that the two leaders had met five times with my Deputy Special Representative at his residence in the United Nations Protected Area (UNPA) in Nicosia for a combined duration of over 10 hours.

4. These meetings offered a good opportunity for the two leaders to explain their positions. The Turkish Cypriot leader urged that the first priority of the talks should be to reach an agreement on the modalities for implementing the package of confidence-building measures relating principally to the fenced area of Varosha and Nicosia International Airport. The Greek Cypriot leader emphasized the importance, in the first instance, of confirming that when the two leaders each professed commitment to a bicommunal and bizonal federal solution they were indeed in agreement on the fundamental principles. He emphasized that such a solution required acceptance of the basic principles that had been endorsed by the Security Council, most recently in paragraph 2 of resolution 939 (1994) of 29 July 1994, as well as acceptance of the definition of political equality endorsed by the Council in its resolution 750 (1992) of 10 April 1992. The Turkish Cypriot leader reaffirmed his commitment to a federal solution. However, on some aspects, notably sovereignty and political equality, his position remained at variance with Security Council resolutions.

5. During these meetings useful discussions took place on a number of other issues relevant to an overall agreement, notably security and guarantees; membership of the European Union; territory, displaced persons and property claims; the powers and functions of the federal Government; difficulties faced by the Turkish Cypriot community as a result of the Cyprus problem; and implementation of the confidence-building measures.

6. These informal discussions turned out to be inconclusive. But they ensured that each leader was well aware of the position of the other on all the main issues and they seemed to me to have opened up some encouraging prospects. I followed these up in meetings with the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot leaders on 24 November and 2 December 1994, respectively. I commended the Greek Cypriot leader for his willingness to explore possible mutual compromises (or “trade-offs”) that would enable the two leaders to respond to each other’s concerns across the board. I urged the Turkish Cypriot leader to respond in a commensurate manner. I underlined to both leaders the promising possibilities offered by the trade-off approach as a means of negotiating an overall settlement, stressing that this opportunity should not be lost.

7. I regret that this effort on my part did not achieve concrete results, although I continued to believe that the informal talks of October 1994 had created unprecedented opportunities for making progress towards a comprehensive negotiated settlement. My subsequent efforts have been devoted to finding a basis for the resumption of direct talks between the two leaders. I asked my Special Representative, Mr. Joe Clark, to visit the area for discussions with both leaders and with senior officials of Turkey and Greece and my Deputy Special Representative to continue his shuttle contacts with the two leaders. Mr. Clark visited Nicosia, Ankara and Athens in March and May 1995. In a briefing on 5 June 1995, Mr. Clark informed the members of the Security Council of his two visits to the area and his efforts to bring about face-to-face talks on an overall settlement, on the basis that both leaders would be willing to engage in discussion of possible trade-offs. He had not found it possible to define such a basis for the resumption of direct talks. He did not see prospects for movement in the near future, but the efforts of the United Nations would continue. Since then, numerous attempts by myself and interested Governments, both on and off the island, have not succeeded in breaking the impasse.

8. Most recently, I met personally with the Turkish Cypriot leader at Istanbul on 6 June 1996 and with the Greek Cypriot leader at Geneva on 11 June 1996. These meetings provided an opportunity to review the key aspects of the Cyprus problem. I expressed my concern that my mission of good offices had remained at a standstill for a long time and I pressed them to consider the negative consequences of this deadlock for both communities.

9. The leader of the Greek Cypriot community confirmed his commitment to a negotiated settlement arrived at through direct talks between the two leaders. However, he emphasized that in order to avoid yet another unproductive meeting, it would be necessary to ensure, through proximity talks, that sufficient common ground existed between the two sides before direct talks began. In this connection, he identified five key areas: security, membership in the European Union, territory, sovereignty and political equality. He underlined in particular that both communities felt insecure and that therefore an arrangement had to be devised that addressed with equal effectiveness the security concerns of both. The 1960 Treaty of Guarantee did not meet that objective and his community could not accept that Turkey had the right of unilateral intervention. He recalled his proposal for the demilitarization of Cyprus (see S/1994/680, paras. 25-27), coupled with an international force, which could include Greek and Turkish troops, on the basis of a revised United Nations mandate providing for the right of direct intervention to guarantee the overall agreed settlement as well as the security of each community.

10. The leader of the Turkish Cypriot community reaffirmed his readiness to meet with the Greek Cypriot leader in direct talks within the parameters of: (a) an equal partnership that would treat the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities as equal in all aspects, including in decision-making in the federal Government; and (b) the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee. He suggested that the Set of Ideas serve as the source of reference for direct talks. He voiced his opposition to any change in the 1960 Treaty, including Turkey’s right of unilateral intervention, and to Cyprus joining the European Union before Turkey, which he believed would negate the bizonal and bicommunal foundation for a settlement in Cyprus as well as the Treaty of Guarantee.

11. I emphasized yet again the importance of creating as soon as possible a basis for the resumption of direct talks between the two leaders. This should consist of mutual acknowledgement of the concerns of each side and mutual expression of a willingness to compromise. To this end, I called upon both to cooperate with the efforts of my new Special Representative, Mr. Han Sung-Joo, and his Deputy, Mr. Gustave Feissel. I informed both leaders that Mr. Han would visit Cyprus during the last week of June and would then proceed to Athens and Ankara.

 

III. OTHER DEVELOPMENTS

12. During the period covered by the present report, several developments occurred that could affect the prospects for achieving an overall settlement of the Cyprus problem.

13. On 6 March 1995, the Council of Ministers of the European Union decided that the negotiations for the accession of Cyprus to the Union would begin six months after the conclusion of its Inter-Governmental Conference. While there is no definite date yet, it is estimated that the negotiations of the European Union with Cyprus are likely to begin in late 1997 or early 1998. At the same time, the Council of Ministers expressed its regret at the lack of progress in the talks under my auspices on a comprehensive settlement and called upon both parties to step up their efforts to achieve that goal in accordance with Security Council resolutions and the concept of a bicommunal and bizonal federation. The Council of Ministers further considered that membership of the European Union should bring increased security and prosperity to both the Greek Cypriot and the Turkish Cypriot communities and called on the European Commission to organize contacts with the Turkish Cypriot community in order to explain the benefits of European Union accession and to allay that community’s concerns.

14. During the period under review, interest in the Cyprus question has grown, in particular among the permanent members of the Security Council and members of the European Union and its Commission. This has been reflected, inter alia, in missions to Cyprus, Greece and Turkey by senior government officials and special representatives appointed by the Governments of Italy, in its capacity as President of the European Union, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America. From 21 to 23 May 1995, the United States, in cooperation with the United Kingdom, convened a meeting in London with representatives of the leaders of the two communities. Its objective, like that of the United Nations, was to find a basis for the resumption of direct talks. However, no progress was achieved. In addition, senior officials of France, Germany, Ireland, Spain and the European Commission also undertook fact-finding visits to Cyprus.

15. On 17 April 1996, representatives of the five permanent members of the Security Council met at United Nations Headquarters with senior members of the Secretariat. Those present exchanged views on the situation in Cyprus and reaffirmed that the status quo was unacceptable. They underlined the importance of a comprehensive approach to an overall settlement of the Cyprus problem on the basis of the relevant Security Council resolutions, the 1977 and 1979 high-level agreements and the Secretary-General’s good offices mission.

IV. OBSERVATIONS

16. The negotiations on Cyprus have been at an impasse for too long. My report of 19 November 1992 (S/24830) described the deadlock reached in my efforts to base an overall agreement on the Set of Ideas and the map endorsed by the Security Council in its resolution 774 (1992) of 26 August 1992. Efforts during the following year and a half to reach agreement on the package of confidence-building measures related in particular to the fenced area of Varosha and Nicosia International Airport were also blocked.

17. Thirty-two years after the first involvement of the United Nations in the Cyprus conflict and 22 years after the events of 1974, the international community can reasonably demand evidence that both parties, and others concerned, are serious in their pursuit of an overall settlement on the basis the two parties agreed almost 20 years ago. The Security Council has repeatedly stated that the existing status quo is unacceptable. No one can objectively believe that it provides a viable basis for preserving the character and security of the two communities.

18. This absence of progress is especially disappointing when, as I have repeatedly pointed out, the elements required to construct an overall settlement have been identified. I refer to the 1977 and 1979 high-level agreements, to the resolutions of the Security Council, to the various ideas that have been elaborated over the years through the United Nations good offices and to the concept of mutual concessions, or “trade-offs”, that emerged during the direct talks between the two leaders in October 1994 as the most promising methodology for working out an overall agreement.

19. In addition, the decision of the European Union to begin accession negotiations with Cyprus in 1997 or 1998 is an important new development that should facilitate an overall settlement. As the Council of Ministers of the European Union has pointed out, accession promises enhanced security and prosperity for Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots alike. The European Commission’s efforts to explain to the Turkish Cypriot community the benefits of membership in the European Union and to allay its concerns are important in this regard. The imminence of the accession negotiations should also instil a new sense of urgency to the search for an overall agreement.

20. What is now required is a concerted effort by the international community to build on these developments and to give a new impetus to the negotiating process.

21. Greece and Turkey have a special responsibility. It is crucial that they should not only lend their active support to the search for a settlement but should also ensure that their own relations do not develop in a way that endangers that search.

22. A number of other Member States, including the five permanent members of the Security Council and the members of the European Union, have recently provided gratifying evidence of their readiness to add their weight to a coordinated effort to support my mission of good offices in a common endeavour to help the two communities in Cyprus secure peace and prosperity in their island.

23. But the main responsibility will continue to rest with the Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot communities. A lasting settlement will not be achieved unless the two leaders can persuade their communities that their interests will be better served by flexibility and compromise than by continuing confrontation. I conclude this report by calling upon the two leaders to work with me, and with the many countries that support my mission of good offices, to break the present impasse and establish common ground on which direct negotiations can be resumed.

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S/1996/411 – Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations operation in Cyprus

United Nations

S/1996/411

  Security Council Distr.: General

7 June 1996

Original: English

 


REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE UNITED NATIONS
OPERATION IN CYPRUS

(for the period from 11 December 1995 to 10 June 1996)

I. INTRODUCTION

1. The present report on the United Nations operation in Cyprus covers developments from 11 December 1995 to 10 June 1996 and brings up to date the record of the activities of the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) pursuant to Security Council resolution 186 (1964) of 4 March 1964 and subsequent Council resolutions, most recently resolution 1032 (1995) of 19 December 1995. A separate report will be issued on the Secretary-General’s mission of good offices.
II. ACTIVITIES OF THE FORCE

2. In its resolution 186 (1964), the Security Council defined the mandate of UNFICYP as follows:

“In the interest of preserving international peace and security, to use its best efforts to prevent a recurrence of fighting and, as necessary, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and a return to normal conditions.”

The Council has repeatedly reaffirmed that mandate. In connection with the events that have occurred since 15 July 1974, the Council has adopted a number of resolutions, some of which required the Force to perform certain additional or modified functions relating, in particular, to the maintenance of the cease-fire.

 

A. Maintenance of the cease-fire and the militarystatus quo

3. The cease-fire lines of the Turkish forces and the Cypriot National Guard extend approximately 180 kilometres, roughly from east to west across the island. The area between the lines, known as the United Nations buffer zone, has a width that varies from a few metres to 7 kilometres and covers about 3 per cent of the island (see the attached map). The United Nations buffer zone contains some of the most fertile land in Cyprus. There are six villages in the buffer zone, but only one, Pyla, is inhabited by members of both communities. The total population of the villages in the buffer zone is about 8,000 Greek Cypriots and 350 Turkish Cypriots.

4. UNFICYP undertakes constant surveillance of the United Nations buffer zone from 22 permanent observation posts, daylight surveillance from 2 additional posts and periodic daily surveillance from another 19 patrol bases. UNFICYP also maintains less frequent periodic surveillance of the remainder of the buffer zone from a further 118 observation posts, carries out vehicle, foot and air patrols, and maintains surveillance of the seaward extension of the cease-fire lines for 5 kilometres.

5. During the period under review, both sides generally respected the cease-fire and the military status quo. UNFICYP exercised increased vigilance during the crisis in the Aegean at the end of January 1996. At that time, there was a short rise in tension along the cease-fire lines, which subsequently subsided. During the period under review, UNFICYP intervened in numerous minor incidents to correct violations and prevent any escalation of the situation. On a number of occasions, military and police personnel of the opposing forces were observed moving forward of their respective cease-fire lines into the buffer zone. In almost all cases, they withdrew without incident following intervention by UNFICYP.

6. The National Guard continued its extensive programme to strengthen its military positions, or to add new ones, along the whole length of the cease-fire line. UNFICYP has protested a total of 150 military constructions in the immediate vicinity of the buffer zone as violations of the spirit of the cease-fire.

7. There were again a number of overflights of Cypriot airspace by military fixed-wing aircraft. Those flights have the potential to increase tension. The Government of the Republic of Cyprus protested violations of Cypriot air space by Turkish military aircraft. The Government of Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot side protested the presence of aircraft of the Greek air force in Cypriot air space.

8. The status quo of the fenced area of Varosha remained a matter of concern to UNFICYP. Incidents of looting continued to occur during the reporting period. On two occasions (in late December 1995 and March 1996), Turkish forces broke into one of the United Nations observation posts. In addition, an unoccupied hotel was converted into student accommodations and has been occupied since 26 February 1996. These developments have been protested by UNFICYP to the Turkish forces, who were reminded once again that the United Nations holds the Government of Turkey responsible for the maintenance of the status quo in the fenced area of Varosha. The Permanent Mission of Turkey has informed the United Nations that student dormitories were being built outside the fenced area of Varosha, which will permit the above-mentioned hotel to be vacated within a few months.

9. There are 39 minefields and booby-trapped areas inside the buffer zone, and a further 71 are located on either side within 500 metres of the cease-fire lines. UNFICYP has, on numerous occasions, unsuccessfully requested their removal by the forces on the two sides.

 

B. Implementation of paragraphs 5 to 7 of resolution1032 (1995)

10. In its resolution 1032 (1995) of 19 December 1995, the Security Council expressed its concern over the continued modernization and upgrading of military forces in Cyprus and urged all concerned to reduce force levels and defence spending. Despite continuous efforts by UNFICYP, no progress has been made towards that objective. On the contrary, both sides have continued to improve their military capabilities:

(a) In late January 1996, the Turkish forces embarked on a major phase of their equipment modernization programme. Approximately 80 of their M48A5 T1 main battle tanks were withdrawn from the island and were replaced by 65 of the improved T2 version from Turkey. At the same time, the Turkish forces considerably increased holdings of armoured personnel carriers (APCs) to an estimated 250 by introducing a further 80 APCs. The arrival of those tanks and APCs has significantly enhanced the capability of the Turkish forces in Cyprus. With over 30,000 Turkish and 4,500 Turkish Cypriot troops and with some 20 per cent of the area reserved for military purposes, the northern part of Cyprus remains one of the most densely militarized areas in the world;

(b) The National Guard, which remains much weaker than the Turkish forces in Cyprus, has continued its comprehensive military upgrading programme. Since my last report (S/1995/1020), the National Guard has received the remaining 25 BMP3 infantry fighting vehicles, bringing the total to 43. A further 84 Leonidas APCs arrived from Greece, bringing the total number of APCs and infantry fighting vehicles in the southern part of Cyprus to 375.

11. In resolution 1032 (1995), the Security Council again expressed concern at the failure of both sides to heed its call to prohibit live ammunition or weapons other than those which are hand-held along their respective cease-fire lines and the firing of weapons within hearing of the buffer zone. On the contrary, incidents of shooting near the cease-fire lines have increased during the reporting period. Such incidents have the potential of raising tension, with possibly serious consequences. Three incidents are of particular concern. On 8 May 1996, two tracer rounds were fired by Turkish forces towards an UNFICYP helicopter on a previously announced routine flight inside the buffer zone. On 10 May 1996, two shots were fired by Turkish forces in the vicinity of a UNFICYP patrol in the buffer zone.

12. The third incident took place on 3 June 1996. An unarmed National Guard soldier was shot and killed inside the United Nations buffer zone in central Nicosia. The investigation has revealed that the lethal round was fired by a Turkish Cypriot soldier whom UNFICYP had observed entering the buffer zone with his rifle strung across his back. Shortly thereafter a single shot was heard and the Turkish Cypriot soldier was seen running back in a crouched position to the Turkish cease-fire line holding his rifle in his right hand. UNFICYP soldiers were prevented from reaching the National Guard soldier by Turkish Cypriot soldiers who fired shots in the direction of the UNFICYP soldiers each time the latter tried to move forward. UNFICYP strongly protested to the Commander of the Turkish forces in Cyprus the unauthorized entry of an armed Turkish Cypriot soldier into the buffer zone, the shooting incident and the hostile action, including live fire against UNFICYP. UNFICYP is pursuing with the Turkish forces in Cyprus and with the Turkish Cypriot authorities the question of appropriate action and has requested that UNFICYP police investigating the killing be able to interview the Turkish Cypriot soldier involved in the incident. The military authorities on both sides have been urged once again to respect the United Nations buffer zone and ensure its integrity.

13. On numerous occasions, and most recently in its resolution 1032 (1995), the Security Council regretted that the military authorities on both sides had not yet reached an agreement with UNFICYP to extend the 1989 unmanning agreement to cover all areas where the two sides are in close proximity to each other, and called on them to cooperate urgently with UNFICYP to that end. Despite the continued efforts of UNFICYP, no progress has been made in this regard.

14. The area where the above-mentioned fatal incident occurred is among those identified in the unmanning proposal of 1994. The incident thus tragically underscores the urgent need for the two sides to comply with the repeated requests made by the Security Council to reach agreement on the prohibition of the use of loaded weapons along the cease-fire lines and on the extension of the 1989 unmanning agreement. Following the killing of the National Guard soldier, the Force Commander of UNFICYP resubmitted to both sides an updated version of the detailed proposal to unman their positions at a number of locations where the respective cease-fire lines are in close proximity to each other. The Force Commander urged the military authorities on both sides to cooperate with UNFICYP in this regard in accordance with the repeated requests made by the Security Council.
C. Restoration of normal conditions and humanitarianfunctions

15. UNFICYP continued its efforts to promote bicommunal events with a view to increasing communication and cooperation between the two communities. In its resolution 1032 (1995), the Security Council welcomed the initiative of UNFICYP in organizing successful bicommunal events and called upon the leaders of both communities to promote further bicommunal contacts and to remove obstacles to such contacts. However, the Turkish Cypriot authorities continued to exercise tight control and often denied permission to Turkish Cypriots to participate in bicommunal activities, not only in the southern part of the island, but even in the buffer zone. Despite efforts in cooperation with interested diplomatic missions, United Nations programmes and non-governmental organizations in Cyprus, UNFICYP has not been successful in having these obstacles removed and improving the atmosphere for bicommunal activities.

16. UNFICYP continued to discharge its humanitarian functions in respect of Greek Cypriots and Maronites living in the northern part of the island. A detailed survey conducted during the reporting period has indicated that these communities now number 487 and 191 respectively. UNFICYP similarly discharged humanitarian functions with regard to Turkish Cypriots living in the southern part of the island, some 360 of whom are known to the Force.

17. Once again, during the current mandate period, the Government of Cyprus expressed to the United Nations its concern about continued desecration of the cultural and religious heritage of Cyprus in the northern part of the island. These concerns have been taken up with the Turkish Cypriot side.

18. As previously reported (S/1995/1020, para. 20), UNFICYP has, on the basis of comprehensive reviews, had extensive discussions with the authorities on both sides with regard to living conditions of Turkish Cypriots located in the southern part of the island and of Greek Cypriots and Maronites located in the northern part of the island.

19. In my last report, I summarized the main findings and recommendations concerning the situation of Turkish Cypriots living in the southern part of Cyprus. I noted that Turkish Cypriots there are accorded the same legal rights and privileges as Greek Cypriots, but that in several respects Turkish Cypriots living in the southern part of the island were often victims of capricious discrimination or police harassment. To rectify that situation, UNFICYP made four recommendations to the Government, which have been implemented to a significant extent.

20. With respect to the recommended review of the policies and procedures of the Cyprus police, the Government has undertaken an investigation of several incidents, and the District Commissioner, the Chief and the Deputy Chief of the police in Limassol were dismissed. In addition, the Attorney-General will decide, in the light of material collected by the government Ombudsman, what further action should be taken. Furthermore, measures are being considered to extend the investigative powers of the Ombudsman to include those of criminal investigation, as well as to endow the Attorney-General with the right to appoint criminal investigators for cases involving complaints against the police. Moreover, steps are being taken to make public prosecutors independent of the police headquarters. Finally, the curriculum of the Police Academy is being strengthened to promote greater police awareness of constitutional and human rights. I welcome these and other steps taken by the Government to deal with potential police misconduct.

21. The Government has also informed UNFICYP that it has accepted the recommendation to establish a government information/liaison office in Limassol staffed by Turkish-speaking personnel where Turkish Cypriots can obtain information and assistance on their entitlements. The Government also agreed with the recommendation that UNFICYP establish a liaison post in Limassol to facilitate further the Force’s mandate in carrying out its humanitarian functions with respect to Turkish Cypriots. Finally, the Government has accepted the recommendation of UNFICYP to establish a Turkish Cypriot elementary school staffed by a Turkish Cypriot teacher.

22. With regard to the Greek Cypriots and Maronites living in the northern part of the island, I had informed the Council that those communities were subjected to severe restrictions and limitations in many basic freedoms, which had the effect of ensuring that inexorably, with the passage of time, the communities would cease to exist. UNFICYP made a series of recommendations to the Turkish Cypriot authorities to improve the situation (S/1995/1020, paras. 23-25).

23. With a few exceptions, the situation of Greek Cypriots living in the Karpas area has not improved. Some improvements can be noted with respect to travel to the southern part of the island by Greek Cypriots living in the northern part and travel by Greek Cypriots living in the southern part of the island who wish to visit their close relatives in the northern part of Cyprus. Furthermore, some telephones have been installed in homes of Greek Cypriots in the Karpas area. However, the telephones do not permit direct calls to the southern part of the island, the main destination for calls by Greek Cypriots living there.

24. The key restrictions on Greek Cypriots living in the northern part of Cyprus that were noted in the UNFICYP survey remain. For example, Greek Cypriot school children over the age of 16 for boys and 18 for girls attending school in the southern part of the island may never return to their homes in the northern part of Cyprus, not even for a visit. Travel within the northern part of the island remains restricted for Greek Cypriots, as does access to holy sites. Fixed property can still not be bequeathed by Greek Cypriots living in the Karpas area to their next of kin living outside the northern part of Cyprus.

25. With respect to recommendations concerning the situation of the Maronites living in the northern part of the island, there have been some limited improvements in their freedom of movement and provision of water to them. However, a medical centre has not yet been established in Kormakiti with Maronite doctors and nurses visiting on a regular basis, nor are the Maronites freely allowed to visit holy places located in the northern part of Cyprus. Their access to telephones remains extremely limited and does not permit direct calls to the southern part of the island, the main destination of their calls.

 

D. Liaison with the parties

26. UNFICYP continued to maintain close liaison and cooperation with the military and civilian authorities on both sides. The liaison arrangements worked well on the whole, although the Force’s timely and unmonitored access to detainees of both sides, in particular those who have crossed the buffer zone, needs to be improved.

27. While UNFICYP has complete freedom of movement in the southern part of the island, except for restricted military areas, its movements in the northern part are subject to restrictions. On the other hand, no such restrictions apply to diplomats and tourists. UNFICYP has renewed its efforts to correct this incongruous situation, which is at variance with the spirit that should govern the relationship with a United Nations peace-keeping operation. It is hoped that the situation will be rectified without further delay.

 

III. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

A. Economic matters

28. UNFICYP continued to act as the intermediary between the two communities and to facilitate cooperation in such areas as the repair and equitable distribution of utilities. The electricity supply on the island has improved with the increased generating capacity in its northern part. However, the Turkish Cypriot side continues to require some supplies from the southern part of the island. With the assistance of UNFICYP, the two electricity authorities coordinate their efforts to secure adequate power. UNFICYP also continued to assist in the implementation of the bicommunal understandings on water distribution and the cooperation in the repair of infrastructure.

B. Activities of the United Nations Development Programme

29. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), as coordinator of the operational activities for development of the United Nations system, continued its activities in the framework of the Nicosia Master Plan and the coordination of activities of other United Nations agencies in the country. In particular, UNDP pursued bicommunal activities, together with other United Nations programmes and specialized agencies, mainly in the sectors of health and environment.

 

C. Activities of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

30. The main bicommunal projects of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for 1996 are in the sectors of health and sanitation and of restoration, conservation and rehabilitation of the Venetian Walls of Nicosia and the currently vacant houses adjacent to the United Nations buffer zone. UNHCR is also financing bicommunal projects in forestry, pest and disease control, and measurement of environmental pollution. During the reporting period, 20 bicommunal activities were organized and sponsored by UNHCR, including regular meetings of the bicommunal coordination teams on sewerage, forestry, plant protection, rat control, environment and disabled persons, a bicommunal seminar in cardiology and the training of veterinary surgeons in modern techniques.

 

IV. COMMITTEE ON MISSING PERSONS

31. Following the resignation in early March of Mr. Paul Wurth as Third Member of the Committee on Missing Persons after nearly 11 years of dedicated service, I wrote to the leaders of the two communities that I was prepared to consider appointing a new Third Member provided that there was clear evidence that the Committee on Missing Persons was committed to making expeditious progress. To that end, I asked the two sides by the end of June 1996:

(a) To agree on the definition of all categories submitted by the two sides for classifying all the 1,493 Greek Cypriot and 500 Turkish Cypriot cases of missing persons before the Committee on Missing Persons;

(b) To agree on the sequence in which the investigations of the various categories of cases would be carried out, in line with the agreed guidelines and criteria for completing the investigation of each case;

(c) To agree that priority attention would be given to those categories of cases that could be concluded most expeditiously;

(d) To agree to collect expeditiously all available information on cases without known witnesses, on the basis of which the Committee on Missing Persons would conclude its work on those cases.

The two leaders informed me that they agreed with my proposals. As soon as these tasks have been satisfactorily completed, I will initiate the procedure leading to the appointment of a new Third Member.

 

V. ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS

32. As at 1 June 1996, the total strength (military personnel and civilian police) of UNFICYP was 1,197. The 1,162 military personnel were from Argentina (390), Austria (311), Canada (2), Finland (2), Hungary (39), Ireland (30) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (388). The civilian police were from Australia (20) and Ireland (15). In addition, 40 personnel were internationally recruited and 318 locally recruited. The deployment of the Force is shown on the map attached to the present report.

33. Some time ago, Mr. Joe Clark advised me of his desire to leave his functions as my Special Representative for Cyprus as soon as a successor could be appointed. On 1 May 1996, I appointed Mr. Han Sung-Joo, former Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea, as my new Special Representative for Cyprus. Mr. Gustave Feissel continued as my Deputy Special Representative, resident in Cyprus, and as Chief of Mission of the United Nations Operation in Cyprus. Brigadier-General Ahti T. P. Vartiainen (Finland) continued as Force Commander.

Financial aspects

34. On 3 June 1996, the Fifth Committee recommended that the General Assembly appropriate the amount of $45,079,500 gross for the maintenance of the Force for the period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997 (see A/50/827/Add.1, para. 6). That amount is inclusive of the pledged voluntary contributions of one third of the cost of the Force from the Government of Cyprus and of the $6.5 million contributed annually from the Government of Greece.

35. Should the Security Council decide to extend the mandate of UNFICYP for a further period of six months as I recommend in paragraph 43 below, and subject to the decision of the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Fifth Committee, the costs for maintaining the Force would be approximately $22.5 million. Of that amount, approximately $12.1 million will be assessed on Member States.

36. As at 31 May 1996, the total outstanding assessed contributions to the UNFICYP Special Account amounted to $9,483,162, which represents some 14.5 per cent of the assessment for the mission since 16 June 1993. The outstanding assessed contributions for all peace-keeping operations totalled $1.7 billion.

 

VI. OBSERVATIONS

37. During the past six months, with the cooperation of both sides, UNFICYP has continued to carry out its functions in Cyprus effectively. The overall situation on the island remained calm, although tension rose periodically. UNFICYP continued to make every effort to mitigate such situations.

38. The Security Council has repeatedly declared that the status quo is not an acceptable option. It should also be clear to all concerned that the situation is not static and that delaying an overall settlement is to the detriment of both communities, as well as to Greece and Turkey.

39. Once again, I must express serious concern at the excessive levels of military forces and armaments in Cyprus and at the rate at which they are being expanded, upgraded and modernized. This can only increase tension on the island and in the region. Furthermore, the opposing forces still have not heeded the repeated calls of the Security Council to implement specific measures aimed at reducing the risk of confrontation along the cease-fire lines. The tragic death of the young National Guard soldier sadly illustrates the urgent need to come to an agreement on the proposals made by UNFICYP concerning the unmanning of a number of locations along the respective cease-fire lines and to prohibit the use of loaded weapons there. In this context, I was dismayed at the attempt by the Turkish Cypriot Security Forces to prevent UNFICYP by the threat of force from fulfilling its duties in the buffer zone. I have requested Mr. Feissel and Brigadier-General Vartiainen to make renewed and vigorous efforts to reach agreements with the military authorities on both sides to implement the measures recommended by the Security Council to reduce tension along the cease-fire lines.

40. Bicommunal contacts can contribute significantly to facilitating an overall settlement. It is obvious that the encouragement of tolerance, trust and reconciliation between the two communities through increased contact and improved communication is an essential part of the peace process, and I strongly urge both communities, and especially the Turkish Cypriot authorities, to lift and prevent all obstacles to such contacts.

41. The situation of Greek Cypriots and Maronites in the northern part of the island continues to fall far short of the normal life they were promised under the agreement reached by the two sides at Vienna on 2 August 1975. In my last report, I welcomed the commitment by the Turkish Cypriot authorities to improving the daily lives of the persons concerned (S/1995/1020, para. 45). However, the measures implemented to date are very limited and insufficient for what is required. I welcome the measures taken by the Government of Cyprus towards normalizing the lives of the Turkish Cypriots living in the southern part of the island. UNFICYP will continue to follow these matters with the Turkish Cypriot authorities and the Government of Cyprus.

42. In the prevailing circumstances, I believe that the presence of UNFICYP on the island remains indispensable to achieving the objectives set out by the Security Council. Therefore, I recommend that the Council extend the mandate of the Force for a further period of six months to 31 December 1996. In accordance with established practice, I am consulting the parties concerned on the matter and shall report to the Council as soon as these consultations have been completed.

43. I take this opportunity to express my appreciation to the Governments contributing troops and civilian police to UNFICYP for the steadfast support they have given to this peace-keeping operation of the United Nations. I also wish to thank the Governments that have made voluntary contributions towards the financing of the Force.

44. In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation to Mr. Joe Clark for his dedicated service over the past three years as my Special Representative for Cyprus. I also wish to pay tribute to my Deputy Special Representative and Chief of Mission, Mr. Gustave Feissel, to the Force Commander, Brigadier-General Ahti T. P. Vartiainen and to the men and women serving with UNFICYP. They have discharged with efficiency and dedication the important responsibilities entrusted to them by the Security Council.

 

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